"Parapsychology & anthropology : an overview"


pp. 331-346 Roger W. Wescott : "Paranthropology."

p. 331 comments by editor (Long)

"Parapsychology has anpsi (animal psi) and ... the term paranthropology which Wescott has coined and which very nearly became the time of this book."

"The chapter was prepared in 1975 as an extended critique of the Rhine-Swanton Interdisciplinary Symposium on Parapsychology and Anthropology of the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Mexico City, November 1974."



futurism, the playful, etc.


"Since the phrase "parapsychological anthropology" is unwieldy and bids fair to become tedious, I propose that our fledgling endeavor be christened "paranthropology.""


"As a member of that maverick breed of visionaries called futurists, I am ... committed to the increasing use of a range of mind-stretching exercises with such names as "brainstorming," "cross-impact analysis," and "the Delphi Technique."


"As an advocate of the holistic and the interdisciplinary, I am naturally gratified by ... acknowledgement of intellectual indebtedness to the late Wilhelm Reich, whose cosmic bioenergetics provided a united field theory for the investigations of non-electrical energies begun by Anton


Mesmer and Carl von Reichenbach in the 18th and 19th centuries."

"Jung’s notion of "synchronicity" ... may well prove valid".

"From Nietzsche’s "game of creation" to Havelock Ellis’ "dance of life," the most sensitive scholarly thinking ... has treated the playful and the serious as complementary rather than as contradictory aspects of profound and productive involvement in the life of the spirit."


"if we recognize shamans as psi-masters, then ... we will perceive them as constituting veritable early warning systems for their peoples,


providing ... advance information about plagues, storms, earthquakes, and other potential disasters. Shamanism ... has been a highly functional survival technique. And ... it can become so again".


"Having no vested theological interests, ... I am untroubled by ... competition and hence inclined to ... domains of investigation which might usefully be termed paratheological. ...

there remains a host of supernatural beings, known to the world’s mythologies, which ... host consists of giants, gnomes, elves, fairies, spirits, ghosts, and ... it is to them that I would devote the ... discipline of paratheology".


"In practice, as most of us know from professional experience, "scientific method," if it characterizes our work at all, does so only after our discoveries have been made, when we are checking and rechecking our results. The hypnogogic vision in which von Kekule saw the structure of the benzene ring and the flash of insight ... are not eccentric deviations from regular scientific procedure; they are typical of how our inventive minds think! The more candid members of the scientific community have generally admitted as much, at least in private."


"most cryptesthesic powers are both weak and intermittent. But it does not seem realistic to confuse the weak with the non-existent or the intermittent with the non-occurrent. Those ethnographers who have come to know shamans well uniformly report that most shamans admit that they periodically lose their psi powers for brief periods of time, ... but that they eventually regain these powers ... No shaman has yet been encountered ... who believes that shamanism itself is a fraud."


"the perceptive process becomes of necessity an act of selection. But ... selection itself can be a creative act. In effect, then, all perception is in some sense creation."


"all invention (which, in Latin, meant "coming upon" or "finding" something) is simply a gift for picking up and passing on messages whose source remains unknown. ... Reich’s "cosmic streamings" and Shakespeare’s "woodnotes wild" would, in this case, equally constitute realities which the average member of society can apprehend only as they are captured and transmitted by visionaries."


"Literally, ... an anomaly is a lawless phenomenon; and it may well be that there are ... phenomena whose laws we have not yet discovered. Whitehead, I think, had this thought in mind when he remarked


that humanity is driven forward by its dim apprehension of notions too general for its present powers of formulation. So anomalistics may be optimistically be redefined ... as special subcases ... to be included some larger view. This larger view I would describe as an incipiently holistic vision of the cosmos."


pp. 347-370 Charles Muse`s " "The Politics of Psi."

p. 347, fn. * Acknowledgement

"support for ... research ... from the Journal of Psychoenergetic Systems"

p. 348 comment by the editor (Long)

"based ... on cross-cultural observations about trance states, psi-conditioning, and consensual hypnosis, is that "noetics," or feedback between matter and consciousness (including extrasensory components of mind phenomena), provides the potential tool for orienting culture to personal needs."

p. 349 advantages of psychedelic drugs

Aldous "Huxley ... saying that he was "not naturally mystically gifted" and that without mescaline he would have had a much smaller and less exciting picture of reality. ...

previously very narrow and naively materialistic scientists and officials change into much broader and even more balanced men after psychedelic experience had shown them the world was vaster than their prior procrustean philosophy had allowed."

pp. 350-351 absurdities of denial of the reality of intrapsychic / noe:tic processes

pp. 350-1

"The naive behaviorists are ... omitting all the inner wealth of subtle processes essential in creating the observable behavior".

p. 351

"Even more misguided is the self-styled "cognitive behaviorist" who by the logical absurdity of omissive premises is forced to deny the abundant and neglected evidence for such phenomena as psychosomatically induced stigmata ..., genuine hypnotically induced blisters, permanent cures of hysterical blindness and deafness, ... and birth birth without anaesthetics because of induced changes of consciousness."

pp. 350, 352-353 trance-induction





"I wrote my study of ancient Egyptian auto and hetero trance-induction techniques (Muse`s 1972/74). ... For a wealth of parapsychological / anthropological illustration and further reference, the reader is referred to Elliotson (1843-55)."

C. Muse`s : "Trance-induction techniques." In :- Consciousness and Reality. NY : E. P. Dutton, 1972/74.

J. Elliotson : THE ZOIST, vols. 1-13, nos. 1-52. London, 1843-55.


"Temacpalitotique, or bewitching thieves, of ancient Mexico reported by de Sahagun (1938 : 350-2)." : "These, in bands of ... men, ... choosing a "9" day ..., carrying a statue of the god of invisibility, Quetzalcoatl, they would approach the house to be victimized while they danced in a peculiar rhythm ..., and one of them carried the left forearm from the corpse of a woman who had died during the birth of her first child {cf. the mummified "hand-of-glory" carried by European burglars} ... They would then first beat the courtyard of the house with this grisly mascot, in a certain rhythm ..., and finally they would give the door of the house a peculiar knock and shout a certain cry. At this, all the inhabitants of that house would fall into ... a temporary paralysis of both locomotion and speech even while being able to see and hear. Then, while all their victims were in this state, the hypnotist thieves would calmly steal

B. de Sahagu`n : Historia general de las cosas de nueva Espan~a. 5 vols. Mexico City, 1938.


all the food and precious things ... They even on occasion raped the entranced women of the house in quasi-necrophilia. When caught in flagrante delicto, they would be shaved to the skull [scalp] to deprive them of their magical powers." {cf. S^ims^o^n shorn in order to deprive him of his magical powers}


p. 356 terrorism

"One ... experimentor, Richter, found that if wild rats were terrorized after their whiskers were cut off (thus depriving them of ... sensory reassurance), their hearts not merely slowed but stopped (Oswald [: Sleep. Baltimore ; Penguin,] 1966). Oswald (pp. 108-9) further noted that "well-authenticated deaths following quickly upon intense ... terror can be found among sophisticated societies as well as among many primitive peoples." ...

Some religious figures and organizations even today control their adherents by ... [a] form of terror known as "induced guilt.""

pp. 358-359 interferences by meaningless materialism




"Nina Epton records that "a Western-educated Balinese told me, ... that until he left for Europe he was able to ‘leap into the other world’ (of trance) in the space of twenty seconds. ‘Now,’ he said, ‘it takes me at least half an hour and even then I am not always sure of succeeding’ " (Wavell, Butt, and Epton [: Trances. NY : E. P. Dutton,] 1967 :112)."


["All this happened by chance and there is no plan in any of it. You are ... in an ultimately meaningless universe." :-] "This is the twentieth-century creed of unjustified meaninglessness and despair that is being foisted on the peoples of the earth."

pp. 359-362 the new non-materialist science


non-materialist science


"Actually, the most advanced thinkers in physics were convinced by their findings even by the 1920’s that materialism was hopelessly outmoded."


"As the basis of understanding nonordinary states, with their rich harvest of awakened parapsychological capacities, a new science is emerging : noetics ..."


"Modern physicists have gone far beyond the nineteenth century’s views of naive mechanistic materialism. ... One of the most spectacular of these findings ... is ... "zero-point energy of the vacuum." This means ... that nonphysical entities may under certain circumstances become physically effective."


"And a new picture of nature cum psyche is forming. Noetics thus includes feedback between matter and consciousness ...

Modern physics has even furnished the transducer for such consciousness-matter or C/M interactions; namely the so-called vacuum (Demys [: "CM quantum theory : the beginnings of a quantum psychology." JOURNAL FOR THE STUDY OF CONSCIOUSNESS, vol. 5, pp. 239-42] 1972; Muse`s [: "Communication of consciousness necessitates the vacuum as transducer." PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PSYCHOTRONICS, Prague. ] 1973). ... Thus we have a casdating series of microenergy developments, probably a nonlinear bifurcating cascade ... (Kolata [: "Cascading bifurcations." SCIENCE, pp. 984sq.] 1975). ...

(The reader is referred to ... : Muse`s [: "The psi dimension in sciences." UNESCO’s IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON SOCIETY, vol. 24, pp. 304-10] 1974.)"

p. 363 concluding remark by editor (Long)

"The suggestion is that ... scientists who are psi-resistant, are in fact better tuned into the nonsense cues of the modern world than ... [others] whose personalities are so open to psi."

pp. 364-367 notes






"Even the male spiders of certain species appear to be able to induce a stuporous trance in the ordinary voracious females by using tactile induction technique with his legs and palps." {massage}



"the microscopic tardigrade or water bear – this tiny eight-legged water mite can survive in a death-like desiccated state for well over a hundred years ... -- ... requires a very different kind of consciousness than its normal waking condition."


"the journal Sphinx (March 1887) contains a very full and useful bibliography of the important work on hypnosis in France."



"Research on hypernumbers (Muse`s [: "Automultiprocessing ... with applications to hypernumber algebras and arithmetics." In :- New Concepts and Technologies of Parallel Information Processing, series E-9. Noordhoff, Leyden : NATO Advanced Studies Institutes,] 1975) and their noetic applications, the raw awareness energy, the attention-impelling energy, and the attention-attracting energy all corresponds to a different kind of hypercomplex number algebra relevant to this problem."



"psychosomatic cures continued to be abundant at the most famous temple of the goddess Isis at Menuthis, Egypt".



traditional incest allowance : "Knud Rasmussen in Netsilik Eskimos ([REPORT OF THE FIFTH THULE EXPEDITION 8 (1-2)] 1931) says that although in general incest was ... banned among these people, a great shaman among them first gained his powers after sexual intercourse with his mother. {Was she already a great shamaness, and thereby transmitting her powers to him?}

In Nyasaland ... it was held that a warrior ... had sexual intercourse with mother or sister.

H. A. Junod (1912) in Life of a South African Tribe found that a Bathonga hunter of hippopotamus routinely has sexual relations with a daughter to ensure a successful hunt.

C. M. Doke ([: The Lambas of Northern Rhodesia. London,] 1931) notes the same ... reasoning among the Balamba who, while ordinarily ... tabooing incest, enjoin it for an elephant hunter to have good fortune when about to set out on his quest for precious ivory.

Finally, A. I. Richards ([: "Preliminary notes on the Babembas." BANTU STUDIES, vol. 9, pp. 225-53] 1935) tells us that among the Babemba, a witch-doctor usually begins his shaman’s life with ... sexual intercourse with a daughter – thus furnishing suggestive confirmation for the Netsilik Eskimo shaman practice."


pp. 371-396 Joseph K. Long : "Extrasensory Ecology : a Summary of Evidence."





"Laura Thompson (1961 : 95) has noted that neo-evolutionists and functional biologists began their interests in psi in the 1940s, but that social scientists have hesitated".

Laura Thompson : Toward a Science of Mankind. NY : McGraw-Hill, 1961.


"De Vesme’s (1931) taxonomy may be as good as any ... by a dependence on concepts and terminology derived from ... spiritualism. In some cases (see Van Deusen 1974), it appears as if such expression as "good fairie spirit" might be justified cross-culturally ...

The anthropological term "divination" probably indicates the operation of telepathy in most cases representing true psi. But in occasional cases, telepathy must be ruled out in favor of precognition, clairvoyance, or PK".

C. de Vesme : A History of Experimental Spiritualism. Volume I = "Primitive Man." London : Rider, 1931.


"hundreds of studies have indicated that primitive diagnosticians have great acuity, and most sources have emphasized that the most adept native practitioners are good at curing diseases ... (Kiev 1972)."


"psi may be involved in the Iatmul of New Guinea (Bateson 1937 : 54-73), and in the Chippewa (Barnouw 1946 : 7) ... Indians of northeastern America.

G. Bateson : Naven. Stanford U Pr, 1937.

V. Barnouw : "Paranormal phenomena and culture." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH vol. 40 [1946], pp. 2-21.


Kirlian photography (Amos et al. 1972; Dean and De Loach 1972; Krippner and Rubin 1973; Moss 1974 ...) shows some promise as a diagnostic aid ... Various anthropological films, such as Pomo Shaman, suggest the curing process might act through the Kirlian process. ...

Servadio’s (1964) cases, presenting a strange mixture of psi ..., involve PK."

L. Amos; J. Hickman; K. Krumsiek : "Kirlian photography." OSTEOPATHIC PHYSICIAN, Oct (pp. 63-71) 1972.

S. Krippner & D. Rubin (eds.) : The Human Aura. Garden City (NY) : Doubleday, 1973.

E. Servadio : "Peasant-healers and the paranormal." In :- Parapsychology and Anthropology. NY, 1964.


"Fuller’s (1974; cf. Eisenbud 1975) report about Arigo, a literate Brazilian is convincing. ... Arigo took on a German accent and, it would appear, the personality of one deceased Dr. Fritz".

"Brockhaus’ ... reports that at the Dipri feast of the Abidji of Ivory Coast, with a trance state ..., certain elderly non-participants enter the scene and ... heal rapidly by what they call a "force." ...

Ohnuki-Tierney (1973) cites cases of GESP among Japanese Ainu ...

Howitt (1948) shows that ..., in Kurnai groups of southwestern Australia, ... impersonal positive power, may be obtained by cutting out the fat of a person and treating it ritually."

J. Fuller : Arigo. NY : Crowell, 1974.

J. Eisenbud : "The mind-matter interface." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH vol. 69 [1975] (2), pp. 115-26.

E. Ohnuki-Tierney : "Ethnology of the Ainu of the northwest coast of southern Sakhalin." ETHNOLOGY vol. 12 [1973], pp. 15-30.

A. W. Howitt : "The Kurnai of Gippsland." In :- Reader in General Anthropology. NY : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1948.


"A paranormal aspect ... is the poltergeist ... (Roll 1972) ...

David Leslie’s work among the Zulus is described by de Vesme (1931 : 140), who says that the stones were thrown from an unknown source. In Madagascar, hundreds of people witnessed showers of stones, displacement of objects, and a "direct voice" (de Vesme 1931 : 141). ... Persistent cases like this this, and sometimes buffalo skulls falling vertically, are reported by Dr. Gerstaeckner ... (de Vesme 1931 : 159-62). ... Bogoras (1909 : 439) described cases among the Chukchee in which spirits tug at the skin and throw dishes around the room."

W. G. Roll : Poltergeist. NY : New American Library, 1972.



"Perhaps the primitives were ahead of us when, with the concept of animatism, they attributed actions to inanimate objects." {cf. the frequent motif of self-acting implements in Bon myths}


"Much of the psi observed by anthropologists probably represents ... soliciting attention and maintaining social status. {soliciting by spirits of attention from humans, and maintaining by spirits of social status among humans ?!} De Vesme (1931 : 100-114) gives numerous well documented cases of this. Besterman (1926) cites instances from Africa. Matthews (1886) confirmed that ... girls in the Bahamas would go into trance and mention events occurring up to 30 miles away. Boshier (1974 ...) has cited a number of such occurrences, including some in which ... the medium told Boshier where he had come from and what he wanted before Boshier had said anything.

Another diviner correctly noted details of Gorer’s (1935 : 222) and his companion’s lives and relatives, including an illness occurring in his family at the precise time. Hallowell (1934; 1942 : 47) had the same experience at a Salreaux Indian seance. A Basuto Bantu diviner had dreamed of Keable’s (1921 : 522-31) arrival before he arrived there. Eliade (1964/66 : 88), Trilles (1932 : 144 ff., 180 ff.), and de Martino (1942 : 25 ff.) cite related occurrences among the

T. Besterman : "Savage telepathy." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY vol. 23 [1926] : 2-4.

R. Matthews : "An account of an outbreak ... in the Bahamas, West Indies." JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH vol. 2 1886], pp. 485-8.

R. Keable : "A people of dreams. HIBBERT JOURNAL, Apr (pp. 522-31) 1921.

R. P. Trilles : Les Pygme’es de la fore^t equatoriale. Paris : Bloud & Gay, 1932.

E. de Martino : "Percezione extrasensiorale .." STUDIE E MATERIALE DI STORIA DELLE RELIGIONE 18 [1942] :31-84, 164-74.


Pygmies. Metraux (1959 : 63) arrived when a Haitian priest had much earlier predicted he would."


"Bogoras (in Czaplicka 1914 : 233) witnessed the materialization of pebbles by a naked Chuckchee shaman[ess], and when he demanded to see more she repeated the act." {This would more likely be teleportation, or whatever.}

M. A. Czaplicka : Aboriginal Siberia. Oxford : Clarendon,] 1914.


"De Vesme (1931 : 118-9) notes that sorcerers in Dakar, Africa, leave their bodies ...,



and that similar feats occur in Uganda, by the report of Dr. R. W. Felkin, in which the form of a jackal is taken. ... De Vesme (1931 : 188-90) notes ... in Latin America (cf. McGovern in Moss 1974 : 158) ... being an animal and ... Peruvian sorcerers ... actual transformation into animals. ... Animal voices are often noted as being associated with psi in primitives (de Vesme 1931 : 141). {In such cases, the voice may be that of the animals’ spirit-masters.} Bogoras (1909 : 435-38) describes a voice ..., indicating that he could detect special voice qualities from ... both the shaman and the animal." {In such a case, the spirit speaking through the shaman may have been the animal’s spirit-master.}

T. Moss : The Probability of the Impossible. Los Angeles : J. P. Tarcher / Hawthorn, 1974.

pp. 379-381 divinations





"Divination is common among South African sangomas and their talents are even used for thefts from stores (Boshier 1974 : 282 ...). Barnouw (1946 : 9) notes that "a Chippewa shaman uses his ... powers for the

A. Boshier : "African apprenticeship." In :- Parapsychology and Anthropology. NY, 1974.

V. Barnouw : "Paranormal phenomena and culture." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH vol. 40 [1946], pp. 2-21.


benefit of his community by ... locating wild game and finding lost objects by clairvoyance, and warding off invisible cannibal monsters ..." The notation of precise time of death is frequently reported in a great many cultures ... (Gurney et al. 1886; Gibson 1944). ... The time of death notation has often occurred among the Maoris as indicated by cases cited by de Vesme (1931 : 156-59), including those of Lang and ... Edward Tylor! ...

Location of thieves and lost objects ... Brockhaus ... has noted ... for the Ivory Coast, Long ... for southeastern Jamaica ..., de Vesme (1931 : 108-110) for the Zulus, and psychiatrist Laubscher (1938 : 43-45) regarding ... South African igquiras (witchdoctors); ... Humphrey (1944 : 224) learned that an igquira had been reading Laubscher’s mind ...

E. Gurney; F. W. H. Myers; F. Podmore : Phantasms of the Living. London : Tru:bner, 1886.

E. P. Gibson : "An examination of ... cases from "Phantasms of the Living."" JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH vol. 38 [1944], pp. 83-105.

B. J. F. Laubscher : Sex, Custom, and Psychopathology. NY : Robert McBride, 1938.

B. Humphrey : "Paranormal occurrence among preliterate peoples." JOURNAL OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY vol. 8 [1944], pp. 214-29.


Further examples similar to these are found in Musil (1928) for Rwala Bedoins; de Vesme (1931 : 104-5, 109-111) for South Africa including the Transvaal, for the

A. Musil : Manners and Customs of the Rwala Bedoins. NY : American Geographical Society, 1928.


Marding of Senegal (pp. 112-14), for the Maoris of new Zealand (pp. 154-55), and Wisconsin Indians (pp. 175-78); Besterman (1926 : 2-4); Gorer (1935 : 220-21); Lincoln (1935 : 329-31) regarding C. G. Seligman in New Guinea; Lee (1968) for the Zulus; Mandelbaum (1960 ; 225, 232) for Kotas of India; the Sussmans ... for the Sakalava of Madagascar; Besterman (1928-29) and Linton (1927) for Madagascar; Neihardt (1932) for Plains Indians; Ohnuki-Tierney (1973 : 24) for the Ainu; Parrinder (1961 : 137); and Wallace (1958; 1967 : 185-86) and Fenton (1953) for the Iroquois. ... Edgerton (1971), in a cross-cultural survey ..., ... finds divining to be much more common among pastoralists than farmers." {Is that because pastoralists frequently seek to find straying sheep or the like?}

J. Lincoln : The Dream in Primitive Cultures. London : Cresset, 1935.

S. G. Lee : "Spirit possession among the Zulu." In :- Culture and Personality.

D. Mandelbaum : "Social Trends and Personal Pressures." In :- Anthropology of Folk Religion. NY : Random House, 1960.

T. Besterman : "Evocation of the dead ... of Madagascar." PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH 38 [1928-9], pp. 209-22.

G. Parrinder : West African Religion. rev. ed. London : Epworth, 1961.

A. F. C. Wallace : "Dreams and wishes of the soul : ... Iroquois." AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST vol. 60 [1958], pp. 234-48.

W. N. Fenton : The Iroquois Eagle Dance = BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 156. 1953.

R. Edgerton : "Pastoral-farming comparisons." In :- The Individual and Cultural Adaptation. Berkeley : U of CA Pr, 1971.

pp. 382-383 praecognitions / praemonitions





"Dr. Ahulu observed a case in which a Ghanaian friend spontaneously ... predicted his own death and was killed by lightning ... (Hardy, Harvie, and Koestler 1973 : 175-76) Mardings of Senegal have been documented as having precognitive visions, including one in which a medicine man predicted his own death (de Vesme 1931 : 111-14). {In each such case, a deity may have informed the chosen person that the deity was about to rapture that person’s soul, whether by lightning or whatever.} ... Hutton (1921a; 1921b) considered Nagas to be skillful in both telepathy and precognition ...

Grober-Gluck (1974 : 197) has noted that "genuine precognition may be experienced according to traditional patterns ..." ... in determining ... the shamanistic ...

A. Hardy; R. Harvie; A. Koestler : The Challenge of Chance. London : Hutchinson, 1973.

J. H. Hutton : The Sema Nagas. London, Macmillan, 1921.

J. H. Hutton : The Angami Nagas. London : Macmillan,] 1921.

G. Grober-Glu:ck : "Second sight in northern Germany." In :- Parapsychology and Anthropology. NY, 1974.


For more on precognition see Gorer (1938 : 186 ...); La Barre (1959/69 :25); Spier, in La Barre (1959 : 25); and Hardy, Harvie, and Koestler (1973 : 174-75)."

W. La Barre : The Peyote Cult. rev. ed. 1959.


"Musil (1948 : 395) notes that Arabian Bedouin sorcerers are expected to accurately predict how long it will be until the next rain; diviners, using 23 objects which are cast like dice, can predict "hidden things" past, present, and future (p. 396). A Kafir medicine man in Transvaal, aside from some impressive GESP performances, made a complicated prediction ..., and ... the events had indeed taken place (de Vesme 1931 : 106-109). Other examples exist, ... Metraux’s (1959 : 63) regarding a famous Haitian priest’s premonitions and direct telepathy (reading one’s exact thoughts at the moment one was having them) and Freuchen’s account of the Eskimos (Weiant 1960 : 2)."

A. Musil : Manners and Customs of the Rwala Bedoins. NY : American Geographical Society, 1928.

pp. 383-384 weather-control


rain-making & rain-stoppage



[rain-making & rain-stoppage :] "Howitt (1948 : 255) shows the importance of rainmakers and rainstoppers in Kurnai, Australia. The former ... fill the mouth with water and squirt it in the direction appropriate to a particular clan. (There was also a headman who would ... call up furious winds.)

A. W. Howitt : "The Kurnai of Gippsland." In :- Reader in General Anthropology. NY : Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1948.


[rain-making:] McCallum (1959) devotes an ... article to rainmaking in Tanganyika. Skinner (1974) gives an excellent review and bibliography on rainmaking in Africa ... Gorer (1935 : 223) observed thunderstorms in Africa, conjured by trance and sacrifice, without appearance of clouds or rain. De Vesme (1931 : 135-37) cites several cases, especially for X[h]osas and Kamas. Bedouins of northern Arabia predict or create rain (Musil 1948 : 395). ...

[rain-stoppage :] When Gorer

D. McCallum : "Rainmaking in Tanganyika." TANGANYIKA NOTES AND RECORDS vol. 52 1959], pp. 53-6.

G. Gorer : Africa Dances. NY : A. A. Knopf, 1935.

E. P. Skinner : "African beliefs in the psychic manipulation of material phenomena : the Tengsoba in Mossi society." In :- Parapsychology and Anthropology. NY, 1974.


(1938 : 213-14) was being deluged a shaman stopped it, on demand, for three days."

G. Gorer : Himalayan Village. London : Michael Joseph, 1938.

p. 385 miscellaneous psychokinesis

"the shaking tent / hut of northeastern American shamans (Barnouw 1942, 1975 :257-58) Hollowell 1934; Landes 1968; Stiles, in Weiant 1960).

R. Linton (["Witches of Andilamena." ATLANTIC MONTHLY 139, pp. 191-96] 1927) observed some clear cases of PK ... in Madagascar. ...

Prasad ([: "Occultism in Sakt religion." In :- Parapsychology and Anthropology. NY,] 1974 : 158) says that ... (... Shakti) religion ... seems to provide PK phenomena ...

Taylor ... says that PK is stressed among Ya,noamo: Indian shamans ...

Tedlock ... indicates that PK was, and ... is, important to Zun~i Indian religion".

pp. 386-387 spirits





"The existence of spirits ... seem most plausible ... involving helpful spirits. ... (see, e.g., ... Kimball 1973 : 182-92). ...

S. T. Kimball : "Learning a new culture." In :- Crossing Cultural Boundaries. San Francisco : Chandler, 1973.


From the days of Emanuel Swedenborg, around 1750, who wrote on the importance of spirits ... and described his own daily intercourse with spirits, there as been a continuous stream of interest in the nature of spirits ...

Murphy’s (1961) observations about apparitions seen in the late 1800s and early 1900s and their relationship to psi is relevant ...

G. Murphy : Challenge of Psychical Research. NY : Harper & Row, 1961.


Bateson’s (1936 : 54-73) description of ... sorcery among the New Guinea Iatmul involves spirits. ...

Bogoras (1909 : 302) observed that the Chukchee shaman has spirit helpers ...

Barnouw (1946 : 16) has mentioned some of the beneficial aspects of spirits in some cultures (e.g., Chippewa children seek life-time guardian spirits in much the same way as Plains Indians seek visions) ....

Seabrook (1929) has summarized a ... report of psi in Haiti."

W. B. Seabrook : Magic Island. NY : Literary Guild of America, 1929.


Joseph K. Long (ed.) : Extrasensory Ecology. The Scarecrow Pr, Metuchen (NJ), 1977. pp. 331-396.