Julian Jaynes Collection

Tabula Contentorum




Publicatio Originalis


Introduction (by Marcel Kuijsten)




Julian Jaynes : 1920-1997 (by Byron A, Campbell; Sam Glucksberg; & Marcia K. Johnson)


(Memorial Resolution, Princeton Univ Faculty)


Memorial to Julian Jaynes (by Brian J. McVeigh)


THE JAYNESIAN 1.2 (2007)


Julian Jaynes : Maverick Theorizer (by Sam Keen)


PSYCHOLOGY TODAY 11 (1977):66-7


Routes of Science




Edwin Garringues Boring




The Study of the History of Psychology


"Introduction" to :- Mary Henle; Julian Jaynes; & John J. Sullivan (edd.) : Historical Conceptions of Psychology. Springer Verlag, 1973.


Animate Motion in the 17th Century




Origin of Consciousess


In :- David Krech (ed.) : The MacLeod Symposium. Cornell Univ Pr, 1973.


Evolution of Language in Pleistokaine




In a Manner of Speaking




Palaiolithic Cave Paintings




Remembrance of Things (Far) Past


QUEST, vol. 1 (1977)


Art and the Right Hemisphaire


ART/WORLD 5.10 (1981)


Imagination and the Dance of the Self


(lecture at Yellow Springs Institute, June 1980)


Repraesentations as Metaphiers




Two-Tiered Theory of Emotions


" " " " "


Four Hypotheses on the Origin of Mind


In :- Roderick Chisholm, Johann Marek, John Blackmore, & Adolf Hubnew (edd.) : Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Psychology. PROC 9TH INTERNAT WITTGENSTEIN SYMPOS. Kluwer Academic Publ, 1985.


McMaster-Bauer Symposium, 1




McMaster-Bauer Symposium, 2


" " " "


McMaster-Bauer Symposium, 3


" " " "


McMaster-Bauer Symposium, 4


" " " "


Consequences of Consciousness, 1


(qu. & an. at Emory University, May 1978)


Consequences of Consciousness, 2


(qu. & an. at Harvard University, Dec 1988)


Capitulum 0



Introduction (by Marcel Kuijsten)


p. 4 auditory or visionary or combination of both?

"The association of auditory hallucinations with mental illness {via., secret and concealed mental ill-will on the part of the praeternatural entity imparting the communication} -- rather than spiritual communication or divine revelation {which, if well-intended, ought to involve full disclosure on the part of the praeternatural entity conveying the communication} -- goes back to Plato, but ... did not take hold until the Enlightenment.

{The absence, in purely auditory divine revelation, of simultaneous praesentation through any of senses, may impart a distinct impression of a hidden motivation, on the part of the divine revelator, for concealment; a motivation which, if not explicated during the revelation itself, is likely to impart various misgivings and/or mental reservations on the part of the mortal adressee.} {In the Politeia (Republic) by Platon, an example is provided of full disclosure, in the reported near-death experience by Er the son of Armenios.}

Since then, the subject ... has been studied only sporadically. ...

In a lecture to the Royal institution on the "Visions of Sane Persons," Galton [1908] reported that "the visionary tendency is much more common among sane people than is generally expected" and noted that the tendency toward hallucination starts in childhood ... . {If starting "in childhood", such may be due to the child being's frequently exposed to situations of prayer, where the unwitnessed praesence of supernatural entities is assumed.}

{A purely visionary communication from a praeternatural entity is likely to be even more worthless than would be a purely auditory one; and in either case, absense of disclosure through the other sensory channels may be taken as a vitiating factor, suggesting concealed motivation likely involving ill-will.} {Excessive credulity on the part of the mortal recipient of such an inadequately disclosed communication can be taken as a mark of "in-sanity", i.e., welcoming of 'un-clean' spirits.}

Galton 1908 = Francis Galton : Memories of My Life. London : Methuen & Co.

p. 5 books describing, in a favorable manner, the hearing of divine voices

"Hearing Voices : A Common Human Experience (2008) by the Australian counselor John Watins and

a series of books by the Dutch ... professor Marius Romme and Dr. Sandra Escher."

[fn. 6 : "See Marius Romme and Sandra Escher, Accepting Voices (1993), Making Sense of Voices (2000), Living with Voices (2009), and Children Hearing Voices (2010)."]

"Henry Nasrallah [1985] in the United States, Timothy Crow [1997] in the United Kingdom, and Iris Sommer [2009] in the Netherlands ... have proposed right temporal lobe language explanations for auditory halucinations ... ."

"Philip K. Dick ... about his own auditory hallucinations ... incorporated ... into his novel A Scanner Darkly, which was later made into a movie."

"Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy (of which the first book, The Golden Compass, was made into a movie), in which each of the human characters has a daemon, or animal companion, that serves a guiding function ... ."

Nasrallah 1985 = Henry Nasrallah : "Unintegrated Right Cerebral Hemispheric Consciousness as Alien Intruder". COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHIATRY 26.3:273-82.

Crow 1997 = Timothy Crow : "Is Schizophrenia the Price that Homo Sapiens Pays for Language?" SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH 28:127-41.

Sommer 2009 = Kelly Dieterden & Iris E. C. Sommer : "Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Language Laterization". In :- I. E. C. Sommer R. S. Kahn (edd.) : Language Laterization and Psychosis. Cambridge Univ Pr.

pp. 7-8 various alternative schemata for understanding the nature of cosciousness

p. 7

"those who ... are heavily invested in {read "thoroughly experienced in"} an alternate definition {not merely "definition", but also including experience} of consciousness,

for example that consciouness involves all {not necessarily "all"; for, merely any would vitiate J.J.'s entire hypothesis} sense perception.

{How, without being consciousness, is one to sense or to perceive anything? Speech may easily be non-conscious (e.g., when "talking in one's sleep"), but sensing and perceiving are not "unconscious".}

Defined in that way, consciousness becomes

indistinguishable from

{not "indistinguishable from"; but, rather, "one of the varieties/contents of"}

sense perception and,

by this definition, all animal life ... would have to be considered conscious.

{Whosoever is not a deliberate liar and a hypocritical cheat is well-aware, as is knowable by their behavior, that all living beings are quite conscious.}

... to address this ..., different "levels" or "types" (e.g., Ned Block's access vs. phenomenal {and also, e.g., Antonio Damasio's core vs. extended -- MTR:"IF"; AR:"APOP", p. 128}) of consciousness are proposed {or rather, "are named" or "are enumerated"}.

Others subsceribe to a form of neo-dualism (... that the mind is ... nonphysical ... and is separate from the body) ... .

{While still others (such as, Alfred North Whitehead) subscribe to a monism asserting that all exising material substance is conscious.}

These more mystical views

{The "more mystical views" are a always highly evidence-based, viz., on the evidence of ongoing personal experience of mystical states of awareness (trances, dreams, etc.).}

p. 8

of consciousness are particularly non-evidence based and

... seem {?!} to stem from the desire {not desire! but often experienced even quite unwillingly} to incorporate deep-seated beliefs {with no belief! often directly experienced even by atheists} in a afterlife {visited even by the living} or survival of cnsciousness after bodily death."

{Direct experience of the "afterlife" is abundantly available in "near-death experience"; while direct witnessing of "survival of consciousness after bodily death" is available through "projection of the astral body".}

MTR:"IF" = Jason Pontin : "The Importance of Feelings". M.I.T. TECHNOLOGY REVIEW, Jul-Aug 2014. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/528151/the-importance-of-feelings/

AR:"APOP" = Gary L. Francione : "Animals -- Property or Persons?" In :- Cass R. Sunstein & Martha C. Nussbaum : Animal Rights : Current Debates and New Directions. Oxford Univ Pr, 2004. pp. 108-42. https://books.google.com/books?id=e7FME0btkH0C&pg=PA128&lpg=PA128&dq=

{As concerning so-called ""types" of consciousness", they are sometimes distinguished with various quaestions, often praesented in vague and bungling ways, such as (MTR:"IF") :

"Are dogs aware that they feel?

Of course. Of course dogs feel.

No, not “Do dogs feel?” I mean: is my dog ... conscious of feeling? {Now, \conscious of\ would normally have the same meaning as \aware that\.} Does he have feelings about his feelings? {If this \have feelings about\ be taken to mean \have a means of expressing in words a discursive commentary about feelings\, then the answer would be negative.}

[Thinks.] I don’t know. I would have my doubts. {This expression \I have my doubts\ is a colloquialism to suggest politely that the quaestion was poorly framed.}

But humans are certainly conscious of being responsive.

Yes. We’re aware of our feelings {can construct meaningful verbal commentary concerning our feelings} and are conscious of the pleasantness or unpleasantness associated with them." {But, because the self-evident nature of "pleasantness or unpleasantness" can be sensed without resorting to language, therefore verbal commentary would be unneessary.}

p. 8 a proposal regarding stages in development of consciousness

"Zelazo describes (2007) "four ... increases" in consciousness ... . Zelazo's fourth stage, reflective consciousness, corresponds roughly to Jaynes's definition of consciousness, whereas Zelazo's first stage, minimal consciousness, describes what Jaynes would term reactivity ... ."

Zelazo 2007 = Philip D. Zelazo; Helena Hong Gao; & Rebecca Todd : "The Development of Consciousness". In :- P. Zelazo; M. Moscovitch; & E. Thompson (edd.) : The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge Univ Pr.

p. 9 dreaming-development

"Foulkes [2002] ... noting that ... dreams go through distinct developmental stages ... states : "... hypothesize that dreaming is ... the operation of consciousness in sleep ... that consciousness develops, and that it does so more slowly and later than is generally believed.""

Foulkes 2002 = David Foulkes : Children's Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness. Cambridge (MA) : Harvard Univ Pr.

p. 9 remarkable competence exceeding the norm

"Dennett notes that "... non-human animals and pre-linguistic children ... can be ... cognitively competent in many remarkable ways -- including ways that exceed normal adult human competence ... ."" (Brockman 2006)

Dennett. In :- John Brockman (ed.) : What We Believe But Cannot Prove. NY : Harper Perennial.

p. 10 paucity of abstract vocabulary in tropical-forest South-AmerIndian, and in East African, aboriginal languages

"the Piraha~ tribe of the Brazilian Amazon's language does not contain words for numbers larger than two ... .

A study ... found that without the precise language for numbers larger than two, the Piraha~ were unable to discriminate between four or five objects.

{Without words for larger numbers, they may have to keep track of larger discrete quantities by a mental picture (or matching by one-to-one correpondence with their fingers-and-toes), but remembring a mental picture (or remembring which finger or two was reached by the matching) is more difficult and less reliable than counting and remembring the word for a specific number.}

"An abstract term for time does not exist in Amondawa." (Sinha 2011)

{Such languages may, however, have words for 'day' and 'night' and perhaps 'month' ('moon').}

This has been noted in other groups as well, such as the Nuer of East Africa."

Sinha 2011 = Chris Sinha et al. : "Social and Linguistic Construction of Time Intervals in an Amazonia Culture". LANGUAGE & COGNITION 3.1.

p. 12 dreaming

"Dreams in bicameral culures {which, incidentally, have never existed anywhere} lack consciousness ... --

{The only "bicameral minds" which have ever existed anywhere are persons who have been subjected to surgical severence of the connection between hemisphaeres; and these persons do not lack conscious sleep (which would have to mean 'experiencing all sleep only dreamlessly').}

... receiving behavioral commands from gods."

{Although deities are often witnessed by mortals visiting dream-worlds, such deities never issue commands, but confine themselves to confiding to the mortal that that world is a dream-world (e.g., SHWS, p. 80; and OFGuNR, passim).}

SHWS = SHWS = Paul Beirne : Su-un and His World of Symbols : the Founder of Korea’s First Indigenous Religion. Ashgate, Farnham (Surrey), 2009. http://www.dreams.00.gs/Wandering_Spirits,_0-I.0.htm

OFGuNR = Kurt Leland : Otherwhere : a Field Guide to Nonphysical Reality for the Out-of-Body Traveler. Hampton Roads Publ, Charlottesville (VA), 2001.

p. 13 praeternatural entities are indeed often witnessed by young children

"The British clinical psychologist David Pearson and his colleagues [P;B;FG;G 2001] ... reach ... the conclusion ... : the phenomenon involves

actual hallucinations

{translation : 'actual praeternatural praesentiments'}

and not just imagination.

Many other researchers and clinicians now agree.

[fn. 30 : "See for example, Kanwar Ajit S. Sidhu and T. O. Dickey III, "Hallucinations in Children : Diagnosis ...," Current Psychiatry, 2010, 9, 10."]

Over the years, estimates of the number {read : "percentage"} of children that experience

imaginary companions

{translation : 'praeternatural companionship'}

has ranged from 30 percent to as high as 65 percent. In a large study ...,

Pearson and his colleagues [P;R;D;A;D;S 2001] found that 46 percent experienced ... ."

P;B;FG;G 2001 = David Pearson, Andrea Burrow, Christina FitzGerald, Kate Green et al. : "Auditory Hallucinations in Normal Child Populations". PERSONALITY & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 31.3.

P;R;D;A;D;S 2001 = D. Pearson; H. Rouse; S. Doswell; O. Dawson; K. Simms et al. : "Prevalence of Imaginary Companions in a Normal Child Population". CHILD 27.1.

p. 14 praeternatural spirit-visitations amongst the Ten>a tribe in Al-aska

"in Primitive Mentality, Le'vy-Bruhl ..., describing the voices and visions of the Ten>a of Alaska, states "with thse undesirable denizens of the spirit-world ... the Tan>a may be said to have almost continual intercourse. They hold themselves liable to see or hear them at any time.""

pp. 15-16 effect of severance of the corpus callosum

p. 15

"Roger Sperry, who won the Nobel Prize for his split-brain research, states : [1964] "Everything we have seen so far indicates that thw surgery has left each of these people with two sepaate minds, that is, with two separate spheres of consciousness."

Elsewhere, Sperry notes that [1973] "both the left and the right hemisphere may be conscious simultaneously in different, even in mutually conflicting, mental experi-

p. 16

ences that run in parallel."

... with these conclusions, Sperry notes [1985] "we have not been able to see any real justification ... for denying consciousness to the disconnected mute hemisphere."

{Although, as stated, there cannot be "any real justification ... for denying consciousness to the disconnected mute hemisphere," Julian Jaynes is quite consistently in denial (! -- but why?) of this evident fact.}

"Gazzaniga notes that after the split-brain procedure, [1972] "common normal consciousness is disrupted, leaving the split-brain patient with two minds" and [2002] "both hemispheres can be viewed as conscious.""

Sperry 1964 = Roger Sperry : Problems Outstanding in the Evolution of Brain Function. NY : Amer Museum of Natural History.

Sperry 1973 = Roger Sperry : "Lateral Specialization in the Surgically Separated Hemispheres". In :- F. O. Schmitt & F. G. Worden (edd.) : The Neurosciences : Third Study Program. Cambridge (MA) : M.I.T. Pr.

Sperry 1985 = Roger Sperry : "Consciousness, Personal Identity, and the Divided Brain". In :- D. Frank Benson & Eran Zaidel (edd.) ; The Dual Brain. NY : Guilford Pr.

Gazzaniga 1972 = Michael Gazzaniga : "One Brain -- Two Minds?" AMER SCIENTIST 60.

Gazzaniga 2002 = Michael Gazzaniga : "The Split Brain Revisited". SCIENTIFIC AMER.

{If Marcel Kuijsten be in agreement (as would seem from his apparently approving quotation of this) with Roger Sperry on this point of reasoning; then he must be in disagreement against the most fundamental point in the argumentation by Julian Jaynes in his misguided attempt to prove total unconsciousness of all normal human beings in the recent past.}

p. 16 the editor (M.K.)'s thankful emendation of one of Julian Jaynes grossest fallacies

"The disconnected right hemisphere seems ... not demonstrating ... an analog 'I' narritizing ... ."

p. 18 neurogenesis & neuroplasticity

"A large number of recent studies now show that new neurons are created throughout life (neurogenesis), and

that signficant changes to brain function without major physiological changes to brain structure (neuroplasticity)." (Shaw & McEachern 2001)

Shaw & McEachern 2001= Christopher A. Shaw & Jill C. McEachern (edd.) : Toward a Theory of Neuroplasticity. Philadelphia : Taylor & Francis.

pp. 18-19 In the circumstance of paranoid (suspectful, hostile-attitude) disposition, language-based communications from a divine world may entre the cerebrum via a plane-of-existence-transiting portal on the right side of the cerebrum, to be processed thereafter on the left side thereof. {Because this right side of the cerebrum is connected via nerves to the left side of the non-encephalic regions of the body, therefore a left-handed deity controlling the left side of the body, such as [Az-tec] Huitzil-opochtli or [Ma-ori] Tu-mata-uenga, might be involved with aggressive messaging. [written 22 June 2017]}

p. 18

"The first neuroimaging study providing evidence ... showing

auditory hallucinations interaction of the right and left temporal lobes appeared in 1999. Since then,

{This would apparently apply specifically to the aggressive, hostile, violent variety of praeternatural voice, namely the unusual type issuing commands to the mortal; but not to the mild, kindly, peaceable variety of praeternatural voice, namely the usual type begging to be commanded by the mortal. [written 22 June 2017]}

p. 19

this finding has been confirmed by numerous other studies. ...

Over the course of the past thirty years, Jaynes's neurological model ... that auditory hallucinations are generated by {read "received in"} the right hemisphere ... has gone from being ... ignored (and ... dismissed ...), to now being considered ... ."

{N.B. The submissive, obedient voice affording (whenever it be commanded to do so) much benevolent advice on how to make for harmonious, loving domestic relationships (as is usual in U-mbanda spirit-mediumship), is immensely more (perhaps by a factor of hundreds of times more) commonplace than Jaynes's aggressive, commandeering voice -- so much so that Jaynes's observations are almost never applicable : that is the very sound reason why his writings were for decades generally "ignored" and entirely "dismissed". [written 22 June 2017]}

{The muchly-more-frequent benevolent, submissive praeternatural voice (described as a "still, small voice") will never appear on the right cerebral hemisphaire in neuroimaging. This manner of praeternatural voice is also that which hath served as spirit-guide for many saints (or, as counter-guide, i.e., warning where not to go, as, e.g., in the case of the daimon of Sokrates).}

p. 19 Kuijsten's methodological fallacy : alleging that wrong-hemisphaire brain-activities are not imparted by an external (viz., unEarthly, praeternatural) source {This may be his only fallacy, but it is utterly vitiating, in effect invalidating his model-and-system of consciousness.}

[quoted from Carter et al. 2009] "during auditory hallucinations, fMRI scns show activity mainly in the right-hemisphere language areas, rather than in the left-hemisphere language areas typically active in speech production.

This may explain {it cannot explain!} why ... the patient mistakenly {nay! not mistakenly} attributes them to an external source."

{This voice, heard resounding from a particular site in the air, may be similar to that which is designate the "direct voice" in spirit-mediumship : it can be heard by all membres, resounding as it customarily doth from a particular point in the air. The authoresss (et al.) of the book quoted are the ones who are mistaken, and/or are frauds. Spiritualist phainomena have been comfirmed for thousands of years by tens of thousands of audiences and by numerous discriminating investigators throughout the world, despite mendacities spread by deceitful psychologists.}

Carter et al. 2009 = Rita Carter et al. : The Human Brain : an Illustrated Guide ... . London : Dorling Kindersley.

{The universal principles of consciousness cannot be based in the material universe (which in-and-of itself is, as materialists freely admit, a meaningless, purposeless dead cadavre -- but then, instead of recognizing that all known consciousness must have its basis transcendental planes, materialists instead go to the absurd extremity of denying any possibility of the existence of purpose, of meaning, and most particularly of consciousness); but these (the triad "purpose, meaning, consciousness") must subsist over-and-above the material plane : purpose in the causal plane, meaning in the mental plane, and consciousness in the astral plane. [written 22 June 2017]}


Marcel Kuijsten : The Julian Jaynes Collection. Julian Jaynes Society, Henderson (NV), 2012.